Brighton and Hove (/ËbraÉªtÉn Én ËhoÊv/) is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of East Sussex in South East England. It is England's most populous seaside resort with a population of 273,400 (2011 census).
Following the unification of borough councils, the towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997. In 2001, the two towns, Portslade and other surrounding areas and villages were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000, forming the City of Brighton and Hove.
"Brighton" is often referred to synonymously with the official "Brighton and Hove" name although many locals still consider the two to be separate towns.
Brighton and Hove is the result of a number of historic local government reorganisations:
- Brighton was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1854, later becoming a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888; it covered the parish of Brighton and part of Preston;
- Hove became a local board of health in the late 19th century, originally covering the parish of Hove;
- In 1893 the parish of Aldrington was added to Hove local board;
- Hove became incorporated as a municipal borough in 1898;
- Hangleton, Preston Rural and West Blatchington were added to Hove in 1928;
- Ovingdean, Patcham and Rottingdean were added to Brighton in 1928;
- Portslade-by-Sea was added to Hove in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Both Brighton and Hove became non-metropolitan districts of East Sussex.
On 15 October 2004, Brighton and Hove was granted Fairtrade City status.
Elections are held every four years, with the last elections occurring on 5 May 2011.
Brighton and Hove represents the first ever council in the United Kingdom where the Green Party have both been the largest group and leads the council.
In 2013 the council was obliged to finalise single status across its workforce, resulting in a strike of its refuse collectors and street cleaners, whose allowances the council reformed to equalise them with other staff at the organisation conducting similar work.
The Leader of the Council and Green minority administration since May 2012 has been Councillor Jason Kitcat (Green Party). The Greens are the largest political group of councillors â" but as with the two prior council administrations, do not have enough seats for overall control.
Since May 2012, the authority has been run on a cross-party committee basis, with five policy committees meeting regularly to make decisions. Due to the margin of political balance, all decisions require the support of at least two political parties.
The current mayor of Brighton and Hove is Councillor Brian Fitch Penny Thompson is the current chief executive.
DVLA database ban
In 2012 it was revealed that the Brighton and Hove unitary authority has been permanently banned from accessing information from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. This information is normally made available to local authorities for purposes such as enforcing parking fines, but access can be withdrawn if they are found to be misusing the service. The Big Brother Watch organisation, which obtained the information about the ban under a Freedom of Information request, claimed that "the public are right to be worried that their privacy is at risk across a range of government services."
The first census of Brighton was in 1801.
The resident population of Brighton and Hove at the 2011 census was 273,369 persons, 50% male and 50% female.
The 2011 census found the ethnic composition of Brighton and Hove to be 89.08% white (80.48% white British, 1.38% white Irish, 7.21% other white), 4.13% Asian (1.10% Chinese, 1.10% Indian, 0.50% Bangladeshi, 1.43% other Asian), 3.81% mixed race (1.54% mixed black/white, 1.23% mixed white/Asian, 1.05% other mix), 1.53% black and 0.80% Arab.
The 2011 census found the religious composition to be 42.90% Christian, 42.42% nonreligious, 2.23% Muslim, 1.00% Buddhist, 0.98% Jewish. 1.66% were adherents of some other religion, while 8.81% did not state their religion.
In the 2001 census, Brighton and Hove had the highest percentage of citizens indicating their religion as Jedi among all principal areas of England and Wales.
Wording of the Letters Patent
The Letters Patent of 2001 that confers City status is worded thus:
ELIZABETH the SECOND BY THE GRACE OF GOD OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND & OF OUR REALMS & TERRITORIES QUEEN HEAD OF THE COMMON WEALTH DEFENDER OF THE FAITH.
To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas We for divers good causes and considerations Us thereunto moving are graciously pleased to confer on the Towns of Brighton and Hove the status of a city Now Therefore Know Ye that We of Our especial grace and favour and mere motion do by these Presents ordain declare and direct that the TOWNS OF BRIGHTON AND HOVE shall henceforth have the status of a CITY and shall have all such rank liberties privileges and immunities as are incident to a City. In witness whereof We have caused Our Letters to be made Patent Witness Ourself at Westminster the thirty first day of January in the forty ninth year of our reign.By Warrant under The Queens Sign Manual.
Economy and demography
As mentioned in the Brighton article, the economy of the city is service-based with a strong emphasis on creative, digital and electronic technologies compared to the national average economic sectors. Universities (of Brighton and Sussex) and other educational institutions are present here compensating for the absence of such large scale institutions in the surrounding upper tier authorities, with a larger population overall, of East Sussex and West Sussex but with such population spread over a much larger area. Tourism and entertainment are important sectors for the City including hotels, amusements, Brighton Pier and Shoreham/Portslade Harbour.
In the demography of the neighbouring county the most clearly deprived claimant count, people claiming benefits for very low income or worklessness, varied from district to district but stood overall for that county at 3.6%, as at August 2012, reaching 6.7% as to the Borough of Hastings. As to England the average figure was 4.5%. For Brighton and Hove, containing approximately one two-hundredth of England's population (0.467%) as at the United Kingdom Census 2011 this data is:
- "Brighton & Hove City Council". Retrieved 20 August 2007.Â